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Pennsylvania Theft Laws
Pennsylvania Theft Laws

 

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Pennsylvania Theft Laws
Pennsylvania Theft Laws

 

THE MICHIGAN PENAL CODE (EXCERPT)

CHAPTER 39. THEFT AND RELATED OFFENSES

§ 3901. Definitions.

Subject to additional definitions contained in subsequent provisions of this chapter which are applicable to specific provisions of this chapter, the following words and phrases when used in this chapter shall have, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, the meanings given to them in this section:

"Deprive."

  1. To withhold property of another permanently or for so extended a period as to appropriate a major portion of its economic value, or with intent to restore only upon payment of reward or other compensation; or
  2. to dispose of the property so as to make it unlikely that the owner will recover it.

"Financial institution." A bank, insurance company, credit union, building and loan association, investment trust or other organization held out to the public as a place of deposit of funds or medium of savings or collective investment. "Government." The United States, any state, county, municipality, or other political unit, or any department, agency or subdivision of any of the foregoing, or any corporation or other association carrying out the functions of government. "Movable property." Property the location of which can be changed, including things growing on, affixed to, or found in land, and documents although the rights represented thereby have no physical location. "Immovable property" is all other property. "Obtain."

  1. To bring about a transfer or purported transfer of legal interest in property, whether to the obtainer or another; or
  2. in relation to labor or service, to secure performance thereof.

"Property." Anything of value, including real estate, tangible and intangible personal property, contract rights, choses-in-action and other interests in or claims to wealth, admission or transportation tickets, captured or domestic animals, food and drink, electric or other power. "Property of another." Includes property in which any person other than the actor has an interest which the actor is not privileged to infringe, regardless of the fact that the actor also has an interest in the property and regardless of the fact that the other person might be precluded from civil recovery because the property was used in an unlawful transaction or was subject to forfeiture as contraband. Property in possession of the actor shall not be deemed property of another who has only a security interest therein, even if legal title is in the creditor pursuant to a conditional sales contract or other security agreement.

§ 3902. Consolidation of theft offenses.

Conduct denominated theft in this chapter constitutes a single offense. An accusation of theft may be supported by evidence that it was committed in any manner that would be theft under this chapter, notwithstanding the specification of a different manner in the complaint or indictment, subject only to the power of the court to ensure fair trial by granting a continuance or other appropriate relief where the conduct of the defense would be prejudiced by lack of fair notice or by surprise.

§ 3903. Grading of theft offenses.

(a) Felony of the second degree.-- Theft constitutes a felony of the second degree if:

  1. The offense is committed during a manmade disaster, a natural disaster or a war-caused disaster and constitutes a violation of section 3921 (relating to theft by unlawful taking or disposition) , 3925 (relating to receiving stolen property) , 3928 (relating to unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles) or 3929 (relating to retail theft).
  2. The property stolen is a firearm.
  3. In the case of theft by receiving stolen property, the property received, retained or disposed of is a firearm and the receiver is in the business of buying or selling stolen property.

(a.1) Felony of the third degree.-- Except as provided in subsection (a), theft constitutes a felony of the third degree if the amount involved exceeds $2,000, or if the property stolen is an automobile, airplane, motorcycle, motorboat or other motor-propelled vehicle, or in the case of theft by receiving stolen property, if the receiver is in the business of buying or selling stolen property.

(b) Other grades.-- Theft not within subsection (a) or (a.1) of this section, constitutes a misdemeanor of the first degree, except that if the property was not taken from the person or by threat, or in breach of fiduciary obligation, and:

  1. the amount involved was $50 or more but less than $200 the offense constitutes a misdemeanor of the second degree; or
  2. the amount involved was less than $50 the offense constitutes a misdemeanor of the third degree.

(c) Valuation.-- The amount involved in a theft shall be ascertained as follows:

  1. Except as otherwise specified in this section, value means the market value of the property at the time and place of the crime, or if such cannot be satisfactorily ascertained, the cost of replacement of the property within a reasonable time after the crime.
  2. Whether or not they have been issued or delivered, certain written instruments, not including those having a readily ascertainable market value such as some public and corporate bonds and securities, shall be evaluated as follows:
    1. The value of an instrument constituting an evidence of debt, such as a check, draft or promissory note, shall be deemed the amount due or collectible thereon or thereby, such figure ordinarily being the face amount of the indebtedness less any portion thereof which has been satisfied.
    2. The value of any other instrument which creates, releases, discharges or otherwise affects any valuable legal right, privilege or obligation shall be deemed the greatest amount of economic loss which the owner of the instrument might reasonably suffer by virtue of the loss of the instrument.
  3. When the value of property cannot be satisfactorily ascertained pursuant to the standards set forth in paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection its value shall be deemed to be an amount less than $50. Amounts involved in thefts committed pursuant to one scheme or course of conduct, whether from the same person or several persons, may be aggregated in determining the grade of the offense.

(d) Definitions.-- As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Manmade disaster." Any industrial, nuclear or transportation accident, explosion, conflagration, power failure, natural resource shortage or other condition, except enemy action, resulting from manmade causes, such as oil spills and other injurious environmental contamination, which threatens or causes substantial damage to property, human suffering, hardship or loss of life. "Natural disaster." Any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, earthquake, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, fire, explosion or other catastrophe which results in substantial damage to property, hardship, suffering or possible loss of life. "War-caused disaster." Any condition following an attack upon the United States resulting in substantial damage to property or injury to persons in the United States caused by use of bombs, missiles, shellfire, nuclear, radiological, chemical or biological means, or other weapons or overt paramilitary actions, or other conditions such as sabotage.

§ 3921. Theft by unlawful taking or disposition.

(a) Movable property.-- A person is guilty of theft if he unlawfully takes, or exercises unlawful control over, movable property of another with intent to deprive him thereof.

(b) Immovable property.-- A person is guilty of theft if he unlawfully transfers, or exercises unlawful control over, immovable property of another or any interest therein with intent to benefit himself or another not entitled thereto.

§ 3922. Theft by deception.

(a) Offense defined.-- A person is guilty of theft if he intentionally obtains or withholds property of another by deception. A person deceives if he intentionally:

  1. creates or reinforces a false impression, including false impressions as to law, value, intention or other state of mind; but deception as to a person's intention to perform a promise shall not be inferred from the fact alone that he did not subsequently perform the promise;
  2. prevents another from acquiring information which would affect his judgment of a transaction; or
  3. fails to correct a false impression which the deceiver previously created or reinforced, or which the deceiver knows to be influencing another to whom he stands in a fiduciary or confidential relationship.

(b) Exception.-- The term "deceive" does not, however, include falsity as to matters having no pecuniary significance, or puffing by statements unlikely to deceive ordinary persons in the group addressed.

§ 3923. Theft by extortion.

(a) Offense defined.-- A person is guilty of theft if he intentionally obtains or withholds property of another by threatening to:

  1. commit another criminal offense;
  2. accuse anyone of a criminal offense;
  3. expose any secret tending to subject any person to hatred, contempt or ridicule;
  4. take or withhold action as an official, or cause an official to take or withhold action;
  5. bring about or continue a strike, boycott or other collective unofficial action, if the property is not demanded or received for the benefit of the group in whose interest the actor purports to act;
  6. testify or provide information or withhold testimony or information with respect to the legal claim or defense of another; or
  7. inflict any other harm which would not benefit the actor.

(b) Defenses.-- It is a defense to prosecution based on paragraphs (a)(2), (a)(3) or (a)(4) of this section that the property obtained by threat of accusation, exposure, lawsuit or other invocation of official action was honestly claimed as restitution or indemnification for harm done in the circumstances to which such accusation, exposure, lawsuit or other official action relates, or as compensation for property or lawful services.

§ 3924. Theft of property lost, mislaid, or delivered by mistake.

A person who comes into control of property of another that he knows to have been lost, mislaid, or delivered under a mistake as to the nature or amount of the property or the identity of the recipient is guilty of theft if, with intent to deprive the owner thereof, he fails to take reasonable measures to restore the property to a person entitled to have it.

§ 3925. Receiving Stolen Property.

(a) Offense defined.-- A person is guilty of theft if he intentionally receives, retains, or disposes of movable property of another knowing that it has been stolen, or believing that it has probably been stolen, unless the property is received, retained, or disposed with intent to restore it to the owner.

(b) Definition.-- As used in this section the word "receiving" means acquiring possession, control or title, or lending on the security of the property.

§ 3926. Theft of services.

(a) Acquisition of services.--

(1) A person is guilty of theft if he intentionally obtains services for himself or for another which he knows are available only for compensation, by deception or threat, by altering or tampering with the public utility meter or measuring device by which such services are delivered or by causing or permitting such altering or tampering, by making or maintaining any unauthorized connection, whether physically, electrically or inductively, to a distribution or transmission line, by attaching or maintaining the attachment of any unauthorized device to any cable, wire or other component of an electric, telephone or cable television system or to a television receiving set connected to a cable television system, by making or maintaining any unauthorized modification or alteration to any device installed by a cable television system, or by false token or other trick or artifice to avoid payment for the service.

(1.1) A person is guilty of theft if he intentionally obtains or attempts to obtain telecommunication service by the use of an unlawful telecommunication device or without the consent of the telecommunication service provider.

(3) A person is not guilty of theft of cable television service under this section who subscribes to and receives service through an authorized connection of a television receiving set at his dwelling and, within his dwelling, makes an unauthorized connection of an additional television receiving set or sets or audio system which receives only basic cable television service obtained through such authorized connection.

(4) Where compensation for service is ordinarily paid immediately upon the rendering of such service, as in the case of hotels and restaurants, refusal to pay or absconding without payment or offer to pay gives rise to a presumption that the service was obtained by deception as to intention to pay.

(b) Diversion of services.-- A person is guilty of theft if, having control over the disposition of services of others to which he is not entitled, he knowingly diverts such services to his own benefit or to the benefit of another not entitled thereto.

(c) Grading.--

  1. An offense under this section constitutes a summary offense when the value of the services obtained or diverted is less than $50.
  2. When the value of the services obtained or diverted is $50 or more, the grading of the offense shall be as established in section 3903 (relating to grading of theft offenses).
  3. Amounts involved in theft of services committed pursuant to one scheme or course of conduct, whether from the same person or several persons, may be aggregated in determining the grade of the offense.

(d) Inferences.--

  1. Any person having possession of or access to the location of a public utility meter or service measuring device which has been avoided or tampered with so as to inhibit or prevent the accurate measurement of utility service and who enjoys the use of or receives the benefit from the public utility service intended to be metered or measured by the public utility meter or measuring device so avoided or tampered with may be reasonably inferred to have acted to avoid or tamper with the public utility meter or measuring device with the intent to obtain the public utility service without making full compensation therefor.
  2. Any person having possession of or access to the location of the distribution or transmission lines or other facilities of a cable television system which have been tapped, altered or tampered with or to which any unauthorized connection has been made or to which any unauthorized device has been attached or any person having possession of or access to any device installed by a cable television system to which an unauthorized modification or alteration has been made, the result of which tapping, altering, tampering, connection, attachment or modification is to avoid payment for all or any part of the cable television service for which payment is normally required, and who enjoys the use of or receives the benefit from the cable television service, may be reasonably inferred to have acted to have tapped, altered, tampered with, connected or attached to or modified cable television facilities with the intent to obtain cable television service without making full compensation therefor. This inference shall not apply to the act of a subscriber to cable television service, who receives service through an authorized connection of a television receiving set at his dwelling, in making, within his dwelling, an unauthorized connection of an additional television receiving set or sets or audio system which receives only basic cable television service obtained through such authorized connection.

(e) Sale or transfer of device or plan intended for acquisition or diversion.-- A person is guilty of a misdemeanor of the third degree if he sells, gives or otherwise transfers to others or offers, advertises or exposes for sale to others, any device, kit, plan or other instructional procedure for the making of such device or a printed circuit, under circumstances indicating his having knowledge or reason to believe that such device, kit, plan or instructional procedure is intended for use by such others for the acquisition or diversion of services as set forth in subsections (a) and (b).

(f) Restitution.-- The court may, in addition to any other sentence authorized by law, sentence a person convicted of violating this section to make restitution under section 1106 (relating to restitution for injuries to person or property) or 42 Pa.C.S. ¤ 9721(c) (relating to sentencing generally).

(g) Civil action.-- A telecommunication service provider aggrieved by a violation of this section may in a civil action in any court of competent jurisdiction obtain appropriate relief, including preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief, compensatory and punitive damages, reasonable investigation expenses, costs of suit and attorney fees.

(h) Definitions.-- As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Service." Includes, but is not limited to, labor, professional service, transportation service, the supplying of hotel accommodations, restaurant services, entertainment, cable television service, the supplying of equipment for use and the supplying of commodities of a public utility nature such as gas, electricity, steam and water, and telephone or telecommunication service. The term "unauthorized" means that payment of full compensation for service has been avoided, or has been sought to be avoided, without the consent of the supplier of the service. "Telecommunication service provider." A person or entity providing telecommunication service, including, but not limited to, a cellular, paging or other wireless communications company or other person or entity which, for a fee, supplies the facility, cell site, mobile telephone switching office or other equipment or telecommunication service. "Telephone service" or "telecommunication service." Includes, but is not limited to, any service provided for a charge or compensation to facilitate the origination, transmission, emission or reception of signs, signals, data, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by telephone, including cellular telephones, wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photo-optical system. "Unlawful telecommunication device." Any electronic serial number, mobile identification number, personal identification number or any telecommunication device that is capable or has been altered, modified, programmed or reprogrammed alone or in conjunction with another access device or other equipment so as to be capable of acquiring or facilitating the acquisition of a telecommunication service without the consent of the telecommunication service provider. The term includes, but is not limited to, phones altered to obtain service without the consent of the telecommunication service provider, tumbler phones, counterfeit or clone phones, tumbler microchips, counterfeit or clone microchips, scanning receivers of wireless telecommunication service of a telecommunication service provider and other instruments capable of disguising their identity or location or of gaining access to a communications system operated by a telecommunication service provider.

§ 3928. Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.

(a) Offense defined.-- A person is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree if he operates the automobile, airplane, motorcycle, motorboat, or other motor-propelled vehicle of another without consent of the owner.

(b) Defense.-- It is a defense to prosecution under this section that the actor reasonably believed that the owner would have consented to the operation had he known of it.

§ 3929. Retail theft.

(a) Offense defined.-- A person is guilty of a retail theft if he:

  1. takes possession of, carries away, transfers or causes to be carried away or transferred, any merchandise displayed, held, stored or offered for sale by any store or other retail mercantile establishment with the intention of depriving the merchant of the possession, use or benefit of such merchandise without paying the full retail value thereof;
  2. alters, transfers or removes any label, price tag marking, indicia of value or any other markings which aid in determining value affixed to any merchandise displayed, held, stored or offered for sale in a store or other retail mercantile establishment and attempts to purchase such merchandise personally or in consort with another at less than the full retail value with the intention of depriving the merchant of the full retail value of such merchandise;
  3. transfers any merchandise displayed, held, stored or offered for sale by any store or other retail mercantile establishment from the container in or on which the same shall be displayed to any other container with intent to deprive the merchant of all or some part of the full retail value thereof; or
  4. under-rings with the intention of depriving the merchant of the full retail value of the merchandise.
  5. destroys, removes, renders inoperative or deactivates any inventory control tag, security strip or any other mechanism designed or employed to prevent an offense under this section with the intention of depriving the merchant of the possession, use or benefit of such merchandise without paying the full retail value thereof.

(b) Grading.-- (1) Retail theft constitutes a:

  1. Summary offense when the offense is a first offense and the value of the merchandise is less than $150.
  2. Misdemeanor of the second degree when the offense is a second offense and the value of the merchandise is less than $150.
  3. Misdemeanor of the first degree when the offense is a first or second offense and the value of the merchandise is $150 or more.
  4. Felony of the third degree when the offense is a third or subsequent offense, regardless of the value of the merchandise.
  5. Felony of the third degree when the amount involved exceeds $2,000 or if the merchandise involved is a firearm or a motor vehicle.
(1.1) Any person who is convicted under subsection (a) of retail theft of motor fuel may, in addition to any other penalty imposed, be sentenced as follows:
  1. For a first offense, to pay a fine of not less than $100 nor more than $250.
  2. For a second offense, to pay a fine of not less than $250 nor more than $500.
  3. For a third or subsequent offense, to pay a fine of not less than $500, or the court may order the operating privilege of the person suspended for 30 days. A copy of the order shall be transmitted to the Department of Transportation.
(2) Amounts involved in retail thefts committed pursuant to one scheme or course of conduct, whether from the same store or retail mercantile establishment or several stores or retail mercantile establishments, may be aggregated in determining the grade of the offense.

(c) Presumptions.-- Any person intentionally concealing unpurchased property of any store or other mercantile establishment, either on the premises or outside the premises of such store, shall be prima facie presumed to have so concealed such property with the intention of depriving the merchant of the possession, use or benefit of such merchandise without paying the full retail value thereof within the meaning of subsection (a), and the finding of such unpurchased property concealed, upon the person or among the belongings of such person, shall be prima facie evidence of intentional concealment, and, if such person conceals, or causes to be concealed, such unpurchased property, upon the person or among the belongings of another, such fact shall also be prima facie evidence of intentional concealment on the part of the person so concealing such property.

(c.1) Evidence.-- To the extent that there is other competent evidence to substantiate the offense, the conviction shall not be avoided because the prosecution cannot produce the stolen merchandise.

(d) Detention.-- A peace officer, merchant or merchant's employee or an agent under contract with a merchant, who has probable cause to believe that retail theft has occurred or is occurring on or about a store or other retail mercantile establishment and who has probable cause to believe that a specific person has committed or is committing the retail theft may detain the suspect in a reasonable manner for a reasonable time on or off the premises for all or any of the following purposes: to require the suspect to identify himself, to verify such identification, to determine whether such suspect has in his possession unpurchased merchandise taken from the mercantile establishment and, if so, to recover such merchandise, to inform a peace officer, or to institute criminal proceedings against the suspect. Such detention shall not impose civil or criminal liability upon the peace officer, merchant, employee, or agent so detaining.

(e) Reduction prohibited.-- No justice of the peace or other magistrate shall have the power to reduce any other charge of theft to a charge of retail theft as defined in this section.

(f) Definitions.-- "Conceal." To conceal merchandise so that, although there may be some notice of its presence, it is not visible through ordinary observation. "Full retail value." The merchant's stated or advertised price of the merchandise. "Merchandise." Any goods, chattels, foodstuffs or wares of any type and description, regardless of the value thereof. "Merchant." An owner or operator of any retail mercantile establishment or any agent, employee, lessee, consignee, officer, director, franchisee or independent contractor of such owner or operator. "Premises of a retail mercantile establishment." Includes but is not limited to, the retail mercantile establishment, any common use areas in shopping centers and all parking areas set aside by a merchant or on behalf of a merchant for the parking of vehicles for the convenience of the patrons of such retail mercantile establishment. "Store or other retail mercantile establishment." A place where merchandise is displayed, held, stored or sold or offered to the public for sale. "Under-ring." To cause the cash register or other sales recording device to reflect less than the full retail value of the merchandise.

(g) Fingerprinting.-- Prior to the commencement of trial or entry of plea of a defendant 16 years of age or older accused of the summary offense of retail theft, the issuing authority shall order the defendant to submit within five days of such order for fingerprinting by the municipal police of the jurisdiction in which the offense allegedly was committed or the State Police. Fingerprints so obtained shall be forwarded immediately to the Pennsylvania State Police for determination as to whether or not the defendant previously has been convicted of the offense of retail theft. The results of such determination shall be forwarded to the Police Department obtaining the fingerprints if such department is the prosecutor, or to the issuing authority if the prosecutor is other than a police officer. The issuing authority shall not proceed with the trial or plea in summary cases until in receipt of the determination made by the State Police. The district justice shall use the information obtained solely for the purpose of grading the offense pursuant to subsection (b).

§ 3929.1. Library theft.

(a) Offense defined.-- A person is guilty of library theft if he willfully conceals on his person or among his belongings any library or museum material while still on the premises of a library or willfully and without authority removes any library or museum material from a library with the intention of converting such material to his own use.

(b) Grading.--

  1. Library theft constitutes a:
    1. Summary offense when the offense is a first offense and the value of the material is less than $150.
    2. Misdemeanor of the second degree when the offense is a second offense and the value of the material is less than $150.
    3. Misdemeanor of the first degree when the offense is a first or second offense and the value of the material is $150 or more.
    4. Felony of the third degree when the offense is a third or subsequent offense, regardless of the value of the material.
  2. Amounts involved in library thefts committed pursuant to one scheme or course of conduct, whether from the same library or several libraries, may be aggregated in determining the grade of the offense.

(c) Presumption.-- A person who willfully conceals any library or museum material on his person or among his belongings while still on the premises of the library or in the immediate vicinity thereof shall be prima facie presumed to have concealed the library or museum material with the intention of converting such material to his own use.

(d) Detention.-- A peace officer, employee or agent of a library who has probable cause to believe that a person has committed library theft may detain such person on the premises of the library or in the immediate vicinity thereof for the following purposes:

  1. To conduct an investigation in a reasonable manner and within a reasonable length of time to determine whether such person has unlawfully concealed or removed any library or museum material.
  2. To inform a peace officer of the detention of the person or surrender that person to the custody of a peace officer.

(e) Exemption from liability.-- A peace officer, employee or agent of a library who detains or causes the arrest of any person pursuant to this section shall not be held civilly or criminally liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, unlawful detention, assault, battery, slander, libel or malicious prosecution of the person detained or arrested provided the peace officer, employee or agent of the library had at the time of the detention or arrest probable cause to believe that the person committed library theft.

(f) Public display of law.-- A copy of this section shall be publicly displayed in the reading rooms and other public rooms of all libraries in such number and manner as will bring this section to the attention of patrons.

(g) Prior offenses.-- Prior to the commencement of trial or entry of plea of a defendant 16 years of age or older accused of the summary offense of library theft, the issuing authority shall notify the Pennsylvania State Police for determination as to whether or not the defendant previously has been convicted of the offense of library theft. The results of such determination shall be forwarded to the police department if the department is the prosecutor, or to the issuing authority if the prosecutor is other than a police officer. The issuing authority shall not proceed with the trial or plea in summary cases until in receipt of the determination made by the State Police. The district justice shall use the information obtained solely for the purpose of grading the offense pursuant to subsection (b).

(h) Fingerprinting.-- Upon conviction the issuing authority shall order the defendant to submit within five days of such order for fingerprinting by the municipal police of the jurisdiction in which the offense allegedly was committed or the State Police.

(i) Definitions.-- As used in this section the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection: "Conceal." To conceal library or museum material so that, although there may be some notice of its presence, it is not visible through ordinary observation. "Library." Any public library, any library, archives or manuscript repository of educational, historical or eleemosynary institution, organization or society, any museum and any repository of public records. "Library or museum material." Any book, plate, picture, photograph, engraving, painting, drawing, map, newspaper, magazine, pamphlet, broadside, manuscript, document, letter, public record, microfilm, sound recording, audiovisual materials in any format, magnetic or other tapes, electronic data processing records, display object, exhibit, work of art, artifact, or other documentary, written or printed materials regardless of physical form or characteristics, belonging to, on loan to, or otherwise in the custody of a library. "Premises of a library." Includes but is not limited to the library and all parking areas set aside for the parking of vehicles for the convenience of the patrons of such library.

§ 3929.2. Unlawful possession of retail or library theft instruments.

(a) Offense.-- A person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree if he knowingly possesses, manufactures, sells, offers for sale or distributes in any way a theft detection shielding device or a theft detection deactivation device.

(b) Definitions.-- As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection: "Conceal." To conceal merchandise or library or museum material so that, although there may be some notice of its presence, it is not visible through ordinary observation. "Full retail value." The merchant's stated or advertised price of the merchandise. "Library." Any public library, any library, archives or manuscript repository of an educational, historical or eleemosynary institution, organization or society, any museum and any repository of public records. "Library or museum material." Any book, plate, picture, photograph, engraving, painting, drawing, map, newspaper, magazine, pamphlet, broadside, manuscript, document, letter, public record, microfilm, sound recording, audiovisual materials in any format, magnetic or other tapes, electronic data processing records, display object, exhibit, work of art, artifact, or other documentary, written or printed materials regardless of physical form or characteristics, belonging to, on loan to, or otherwise in the custody of a library. "Merchandise." Any goods, chattels, foodstuffs or wares of any type and description regardless of the value thereof. "Merchant." An owner or operator of any retail mercantile establishment or any agent, employee, lessee, consignee, officer, director, franchisee or independent contractor of such owner or operator. "Store or other retail mercantile establishment." A place where merchandise is displayed, held, stored or sold or offered to the public for sale. "Theft detection deactivation device." Any tool, device, equipment or object designed to destroy, remove, render inoperative or deactivate any inventory control tag, security strip or any other mechanism designed or employed to prevent an offense under section 3929 (relating to retail theft) or 3929.1 (relating to library theft) which is possessed, manufactured, sold or offered for sale with the intention that it be used to:

  1. deprive merchants of the possession, use or benefit of merchandise displayed, held, stored, or offered for sale or lease, without paying the full retail value thereof; or
  2. convert library or museum material to one's own use.
"Theft detection shielding device." Any laminated, lined or coated bag, purse, container, case, coat or similar device which is intended to be used to take possession of, carry away, transfer, cause to be carried away or transferred, or conceal:
  1. any merchandise displayed, held, stored, or offered for sale or lease, by any store or other retail mercantile establishment with the intent to deprive merchants of the possession, use or benefit of such merchandise without paying the full retail value thereof; or
  2. any library or museum material on his person or among his belongings with the intent to convert such material to his own use.

§ 3934. Theft from a motor vehicle.

(a) Offense defined.-- A person commits the offense of theft from a motor vehicle if he unlawfully takes or attempts to take possession of, carries away or exercises unlawful control over any movable property of another from a motor vehicle with the intent to deprive him thereof.

(b) Grading.--

  1. An offense under this section is:
    1. a misdemeanor of the third degree if the amount involved was less than $50; or
    2. a misdemeanor of the second degree if the amount involved was $50 or more but less than $200; or
    3. a misdemeanor of the first degree if the amount involved was greater than $200.
  2. When the offense is a third or subsequent offense within a five-year period, regardless of the amount involved and regardless of the grading of the prior offenses, an offense under this section is a felony of the third degree.

Act 328 of 1931

750.356 Larceny.

Sec. 356.

(1) A person who commits larceny by stealing any of the following property of another person is guilty of a crime as provided in this section:

(a) Money, goods, or chattels.

(b) A bank note, bank bill, bond, promissory note, due bill, bill of exchange or other bill, draft, order, or certificate.

(c) A book of accounts for or concerning money or goods due, to become due, or to be delivered.

(d) A deed or writing containing a conveyance of land or other valuable contract in force.

(e) A receipt, release, or defeasance.

(f) A writ, process, or public record.

(2) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 10 years or a fine of not more than $15,000.00 or 3 times the value of the property stolen, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The property stolen has a value of $20,000.00 or more.

(b) The person violates subsection (3)(a) and has 2 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (4)(b) or (5).

(3) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 5 years or a fine of not more than $10,000.00 or 3 times the value of the property stolen, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The property stolen has a value of $1,000.00 or more but less than $20,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (4)(a) and has 1 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section. For purposes of this subdivision, however, a prior conviction does not include a conviction for a violation or attempted violation of subsection (4)(b) or (5).

(4) If any of the following apply, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 1 year or a fine of not more than $2,000.00 or 3 times the value of the property stolen, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine:

(a) The property stolen has a value of $200.00 or more but less than $1,000.00.

(b) The person violates subsection (5) and has 1 or more prior convictions for committing or attempting to commit an offense under this section or a local ordinance substantially corresponding to this section.

(5) If the property stolen has a value of less than $200.00, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 93 days or a fine of not more than $500.00 or 3 times the value of the property stolen, whichever is greater, or both imprisonment and a fine.

(6) The values of property stolen in separate incidents pursuant to a scheme or course of conduct within any 12-month period may be aggregated to determine the total value of property stolen.

(7) If the prosecuting attorney intends to seek an enhanced sentence based upon the defendant having 1 or more prior convictions, the prosecuting attorney shall include on the complaint and information a statement listing the prior conviction or convictions. The existence of the defendant's prior conviction or convictions shall be determined by the court, without a jury, at sentencing or at a separate hearing for that purpose before sentencing. The existence of a prior conviction may be established by any evidence relevant for that purpose, including, but not limited to, 1 or more of the following:

(a) A copy of the judgment of conviction.

(b) A transcript of a prior trial, plea-taking, or sentencing.

(c) Information contained in a presentence report.

(d) The defendant's statement.

(8) If the sentence for a conviction under this section is enhanced by 1 or more prior convictions, those prior convictions shall not be used to further enhance the sentence for the conviction pursuant to section 10, 11, or 12 of chapter IX of the code of criminal procedure, 1927 PA 175, MCL 769.10, 769.11, and 769.12.

 

 

 

 

 

take a theft class * take a shoplifting class * take a theft class * take a petit class * take a theft class * take a shoplifting course

Disclaimer
Please note, the theft law information on this page is provided as a courtesy to help explain theft, shoplifting and stealing laws. There is no guarantee or assurance of reliability or validity. Laws change over time and this page may or may not be current. The code that is provided on this site is an unofficial posting of the State Codes. The files making up this Internet version of the State Codes do not constitute the official text of the State Codes and are intended for informational purposes only. No representation is made as to the accuracy or completeness of these sections. While every effort was made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the statutes available THEFT TALK Online Services shall not be liable or held responsible for any errors or omissions which may occur in these files, they are provided on an "As Is" basis. Use of the information and services are at the sole risk of the user. There is absolutely NO INTENT to provide legal advice or suggest these links can substitute for competent legal advice. For official versions of any state's current laws, the user is directed to that states Revised Statutes, all amendments and cumulative supplements thereto published by that state. Please notify the Webmaster if you find any irregularities in the statutes on this web site. The Webmaster will relay the information to appropriate staff to investigate the irregularities. The printed version of the State Codes should be consulted for all matters requiring reliance on the statutory text. If you were involved in a theft or shoplifting incident you are encouraged to consider taking a theft class, theft course or shoplifting education class such as the one provided by Theft Talk. Research shows theft school and/or theft education can be an effective theft prevention. "THEFT TALK" Online Services is an online theft education, shoplifting education class about stealing, it can be very effective if you want to stop stealing. Evan it was a small theft, a petty theft class or petty theft school could be right for you!

An online theft class / shoplifting class / larceny class / petty theft class for people who have stolen

 

 

THEFT TALK -- since 1983  

Online Shoplifting - Theft Classes / Theft Education Stealing is a crime

 

 

Is the TTOS Theft / Shoplifting class Right for You?

Theft programs can vary a great deal in terms of content and delivery method. Like many things on the internet they are not always what they "appear" to be. Our research has only found three theft classes offered online that are good and reputable. There are a few theft classes offered that are either a bit deceptive about pricing (i.e., one price is all you really pay), certificate delivery (is it mailed or does it cost more?) or simplythe class does not meet a high professional quality standard. Choose Theft Talk or not - be careful.

A Nationwide Program

TTOS is a Nationwide Company that has a reputation across the Nation for our high quality programs. We have been providing Theft / Shoplifting classes since 1983 as our Theft Talk program.

Some "Online" theft / shoplifting programs are not actually a real online service. These theft classes indicate they are an online program because they can be found and purchased on a web page, but in reality the theft class is really a book you purchase or a download file that you put on your computer. This is really not an online class but rather a product you purchase on the web.

When we say we offer a Online Pennsylvania Theft / Shoplifting class, we mean "Online."

With our theft class you will register online, create your username/password so that you can log in and out of the program as many times as you want 24/7. You make your Theft / Shoplifting class purchase online. You take all of your coursework online as well. There are no downloads or anything else. The system will "remember" you and all of your scores as you log in and out of our secure system. You will also be able to print the Theft Class Certificate of Completion directly from your screen upon successful completion of the program.

A Workbook Class is available too

As an alternative to the online class, please note we do also offer a workbook/correspondence course for those without internet access.

Credentials, Experience and Qualified

If you are comparing programs we encourage you to make sure you are comparing apples to apples. What is the history of the company providing the course? What kind of experience, education and training qualifies them to offer classes? Was the class written by a professional in the field or by a non-experienced "writer" or "canned" curriculum?

TTOS staff began researching and working with Theft / Shoplifting clients in 1983. At the onset the service was called Theft Talk. Now, TTOS is a nationwide service providing high quality evidence based Theft / Shoplifting services. All TTOS counselors are required to complete rigorous training prior to becoming a certified counselor. All Counselors are required to have a minimum of a Bachelor's Degree and are supervised by staff with a minimum of a Master's Degree.

Can a judge, probation officer or attorney contact the agency to verify credentials?

Of course! If your specific court is not familiar with our program you may wish to print our court approval documentation, (click here to get document). to give them further information. If they contact our office we will also provide them access to our online theft class so they can view the program and its integrity for themselves.

The Psychology of Stealing

What is the program based off of? Is there substance or just feel good babble? The TTOS Theft / Shoplifting class is based on the book The Psychology of Stealing, written by Steven M. Houseworth, MA who is a consultant for TTOS Listed below are the objectives of our program.

OBJECTIVE 1: Empowerment: To assist the client in developing a sense of personal responsibility for each decision they make. Prior to completing our online course each client will acknowledge they are the only one who can stop themselves from stealing.

OBJECTIVE 2: Education: To inform each client of the impact stealing has on others. The purpose is to have each client perceive theft quite differently from how it is typically perceived. In this regard, the second objective is to provide each client with specific information and skills to include in their decision making process. Prior to completing the course each client will associate stealing with the actual impact it always has on others.

OBJECTIVE 3: Victim Awareness: To have each client consider the value he/she places on “others”. This third objective entails having the offender look into him/her self, introspectively and weigh the value placed on SELF vs. the value placed on OTHERS. We are not trying to build the offenders self image. We recognize the importance of this however, our focus is on developing an OTHERS image.

OBJECTIVE 4: Empathy Development: To have each client consider the value he/she places on "others." This objective entails having the offender look into him/herself, introspectively and weigh the value placed on SELF vs. the value placed on OTHERS. Prior to, and long after completing the course each client will question themselves - asking, seriously, how important they believe others really are.

Do they offer a refund policy? What happens if your court does not accept the program?

TTOS stands behind its program and offers a full money back guarantee. Click here to view the TTOS Guarantee.

Why is the TTOS price so reasonable?

At TTOS we strive hard to keep our overhead costs low so that we can pass on the savings to you. We are well aware of all the other financial obligations that were likely placed upon you by the courts. We want you to be successful at completing your court orders. We give you, what we believe to be a solid honest fair price for our service. With our program I am very confident that you will be receiving one of the best Theft / Shoplifting programs available.

For some, an online program is best. No need to take time off work or out of your busy schedule. You complete the course in your home or at any internet connection on your schedule. Our classes are available 24/7. For others, sitting in a group or with a live instructor might be the best option. Either way make sure the program that you utilize measures up.

 

Click Here to Register for your theft Class now!

The TT Online Services™ Inc. Theft / Shoplifting classes

TT Online Services™ Inc. provides Theft / Shoplifting classes as a 4 hour Theft / Shoplifting class or an 8 hour Theft / Shoplifting class. The Theft / Shoplifting curriculum is based on, "The Psychology of Stealing" by our founder, Steven Michael Houseworth, MA. Our Theft / Shoplifting classes do not focus on laws and punishments - you already know stealing is illegal. A key component of an effective Theft / Shoplifting class is to educate the student about the dangers of mental rehearsing theft behaviors. No Theft / Shoplifting class would be complete if it did not provide new, meaningful and useful information. Our Theft / Shoplifting classes work under the assumption that the way a person thinks guides the way a person behaves. The TT Online Services™ Theft / Shoplifting classes use a cognitive restructuring approach which basically follows the tenant of Norman Vincent Peale (1898 - 1993): "Change your thoughts and you will change your world." Our Theft / Shoplifting classes ask the client to explore their attitudes, values and beliefs. Each of our Theft / Shoplifting classes end asking the client to figure out what they believe, who they are and to identify their value system. To this end, our Theft / Shoplifting classes have a victim focus and work toward understanding and developing empathy.

The TT Online Services™ Theft / Shoplifting classes began in 1983. As practitioners in the criminal justice field it it only made sense to focus on a specialty of theft since most crimes are theft related - theft, shoplifting, burglary, unauthorized use of a vehicle, burglary, robbery, etc.. Our first Theft / Shoplifting class was called Theft Talk and we quickly learned that conducting Theft / Shoplifting classes is a formidable task. Initially we spent most of our time on techniques and, through trial and error, our Theft / Shoplifting class evolved into the Theft / Shoplifting class it is today. Our education, the volumes or research and practice has proven that a Theft / Shoplifting class has little likelihood of being effective unless a key component is included - the attitudes, values and beliefs of the person with the Theft / Shoplifting problem. Theft / Shoplifting clients need to change their thinking if they want to to change their behavior.

What are you going to try to do to me in your Theft / Shoplifting class?

Strangely enough this Theft / Shoplifting question is quite important! It is of high importance to TT Online Services™ that we don't try to do anything to you. Our Theft / Shoplifting classes do not try to fix you. Our Theft / Shoplifting classes do not judge you. Our Theft / Shoplifting classes do not try to force anything on you and have no intent of imposing change on you. Critical to the success of our theft class is the need to: a) be respectful of the client, b) not be judgmental of the client, c) not try to impose "the truth" on the client and d) not try to impose change on the client. Our Theft / Shoplifting class is education oriented and works under the assumption that if you learn you will change your thoughts. If you change your thoughts you will change your behavior, your life and your world. Yes, with great confidence we are strong believers in education, we attribute education to have converted the human animal to the human being. Any change that comes as a result of taking our Theft / Shoplifting classes is change that the client makes. We can take credit for providing meaningful information; the client needs to take credit for changing his/her Theft / Shoplifting behavior. Life gets much better, much happier and becomes more fulfilling once Theft / Shoplifting problems are in the past.

Okay, it is education based, so what can I expect to learn in this Theft / Shoplifting classes?

Our Theft / Shoplifting classes are based on the book by Steven Michael Houseworth, MA, "The Psychology of Stealing." The Theft / Shoplifting class curriculum finds a balance between providing new information and providing Theft / Shoplifting "stuff" you can try, work on, use to deal with a Theft / Shoplifting problem. The education component explains theft in a way you have likely never heard before and then moves right on to asking you to rethink Theft / Shoplifting beliefs you may have that are not true.

What is the best way to take a Theft / Shoplifting class?

Theft / Shoplifting classes come in many forms. The old traditional counselor in a chair method of dealing with people with Theft / Shoplifting problems may be right for you. Counselors, psychologists and some social workers offer their services and, if you have insurance or can afford their fees, you would do well to explore that route. Personally, I recommend a counselor or psychologist for theft issues.

Another popular way to take a Theft / Shoplifting class is by attending an in person Theft / Shoplifting classroom. This form of Theft / Shoplifting class is often available in bigger cities. Basically, there are two forms of in person Theft / Shoplifting classes; there is the Theft / Shoplifting class and the Theft / Shoplifting group . If you don't mind sharing your Theft / Shoplifting problems, or simply prefer a group or classroom setting, a Theft / Shoplifting class or Theft / Shoplifting group might be suited to you.

TT Online Services™ offers two other forms of Theft / Shoplifting classes. Our Theft / Shoplifting classes are offered as an online Theft / Shoplifting class or a Theft / Shoplifting workbook (study at home). As previously noted our Theft / Shoplifting classes are educational in nature. One huge benefit of an online Theft / Shoplifting class is fidelity. Online Theft / Shoplifting classes are delivered consistently the same way for each client and eliminate natural human errors and omissions.

Our workbook Theft / Shoplifting class consists of the same content as the online class but is in a workbook format versus online.

Tell me about the online Theft / Shoplifting class.

It really is pretty simple. The first thing you do is get registered so you can take your online Theft / Shoplifting class - it's free to register, (create an account). Try not to register more than one time, you will likely lose track of usernames and passwords and need to call our help center.

When you register you will be asked to input your email address. This becomes important because after you register for the online Theft / Shoplifting class you will be sent an auto generated email confirming your registration. If you don't get an email right away we suggest you check your spam or junk-mail to see if it is there. You will also be asked for the email address of the person who referred you to our Theft / Shoplifting class (If you have it). It is usually worth taking the time to get that person's email address because that person is sent a confirmation that you got registered for the Theft / Shoplifting class and again when you complete your Theft / Shoplifting class.

Once you are registered you need to pick the Theft / Shoplifting class you want to take: The juvenile or adult version; the impulse control version; the petit theft version (same class but different certificate); the 4 hour class, the 8 hour class.

Pick your class, click on the PayPal/Credit Card icon to pay for your Theft / Shoplifting class and you are ready to go.

Are there added costs or other things to buy?

The TT Online Services™ Online Theft / Shoplifting classes are 100% online. There are no additional items to buy and there are no added costs.

Will the TT Online Services™ Online Theft / Shoplifting class be accepted by the person who referred me to a Theft / Shoplifting class?

TT Online Services™ is a nationwide premier provider of online Theft / Shoplifting classes and has been accepted in every state in the country. That said, there is no national standard for Theft / Shoplifting classes and any judge, probation officer or employer can accept a Theft / Shoplifting class or reject it. We do offer a money back guarantee (be sure to read the details) if our online Theft / Shoplifting class is not accepted.

Can I really take my Theft / Shoplifting class anytime - day or night?

That's right! You can take your Theft / Shoplifting class anytime, day or night, 23 hours a day 7 days a week. You also only need to work on your Theft / Shoplifting class for as long as you want to. Stop and start when you want - the system will remember where you last ended your Theft / Shoplifting class.

Are your Theft / Shoplifting class exams difficult to pass?

Our exams do have fairly high standards. If you want to be sure to successfully complete any one chapter in your online Theft / Shoplifting class you will very likely pass the exam if you simply read the material in that chapter. The only people who report our Theft / Shoplifting class exams to be problematic are the people who tried "skimming" without learning. Our exams are typically reported to be easy after the person actually reads the chapter.

What if I need help, have a problem or need support?

Support for our Theft / Shoplifting customers is very important to TT Online Services™. We offer email support seven days a week 15 hours a day. We provide phone support 10 hours a day on weekdays. We are often available by phone on weekends. You can email support@thefttalk.com and you will typically get a response in one hour or less.

How do I get my Theft / Shoplifting class completion certificate?

After you have completed all of your Theft / Shoplifting class a Completion Certificate is immediately activated and made available to you. If you want TT Online Services™ to mail or email you a certificate, just ask - no added fee. Mailed Theft / Shoplifting class Completion Certificates are embossed and can be sent directly to the person who referred you to our Theft / Shoplifting class.

 

Sign up for your theft class here!

 

 

 

 

A Really Good Choice

Our Theft / Shoplifting class is a convenient way to complete a court ordered, PO, diversion or school required program.

You can take the class from any location in the United States, Europe, Canada or Australia with a computer and internet access. There is nothing to download or print, simply register, log in, pay and begin your class.

Our Courses Include:

24 hour access to your class

Immediate Proof of Enrollment

Start and stop at any time - work at your pace

Use home computer or public library

A world class learning experience

User friendly

Support by phone weekdays, by email 7 days a week

Free Certificate of Completion immediately available upon completion

Our Philosophy

Change your thoughts and you change your world .

~Norman Vincent Peale
(1898 - 1993)

Learn about our money back guarantee

(Click For Details)

 

Theft Class: A TTOS Program

Theft Talk ™

 

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